Anesthesia and Sleep Task Details

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In Anesthesia and Sleep task, we recorded electrocoticographic (ECoG) signals from most of the lateral cortex in four macaques during awake (eyes-opened, eyes-closed), anesthetic and sleeping conditions. By comparing neural activity in conscious state with unconscious state, you can find consciousness-correlated neural activity. This dataset enables you to test your "theory of consciousness".

Anesthesia and Sleep Task

Anesthesia and Sleep task has five experiments.

  • Anesthesia Experiments
    Ketamine and medetomidine (KTMD)
    Propofol (PF)
    Ketamine (KT)
    Medetomidine (MD)
  • Natural Sleep Experiment (SLP)

Experiment Condition

  • Anesthesia Experiments


  • Natural Sleep Experiment


Detail Method

  • Anesthesia Experiments

We did 4 experiments in which the monkey was under anesthesia. Two anesthetic agents, ketamine and medetomidine, were used in the first experiment. In other experiments, only propofol, ketamine or medetomidine were used respectively.

During the experiments, a monkey was seated in a primate chair with both arms and head movement restricted. Neural data were acquired during the experiment. There were three conditions that were awake, anesthetized and recovery conditions. The awake condition had eyes-opened and eyes-closed conditions. At first the monkey’s eyes were opened and the monkey would sit calmly for up to 20 min (See Table). Next the monkey’s eyes were covered by an eye-mask to refrain from evoking visual response. During the eyes-closed condition, the monkey would sit calmly for up to 20 min at which time we would start to monitor heart rate (See Table).

In experiments where the ketamine-medetomidine cocktail was used to induce anesthesia, the ketamine (~5.0 mg/kg for M1–M3, 8.8 mg/kg for M4) and medetomidine (~0.016 mg/kg for M1–M3, 0.053 mg/kg for M4) were injected intramuscularly (see Table). In contrast, propofol-induced anesthesia was achieved through intravenous propofol (5.2 mg/kg for M1 and M2) injection (see Table). In ketamine-induced anesthesia experiment, the ketamine (~5.1 mg/kg for M1 and M2) was injected intramuscularly (see Table). In medetomidine-induced anesthesia experiment, the medetomidine (~0.018 mg/kg for M1 and M2) was injected intramuscularly (see Table). Loss of consciousness (LOC) was defined as the point at which the monkey no longer responded to manipulation of the monkey’s hand or touching of the nostril or philtrum with a cotton swab. As an additional confirmation that the monkey had achieved LOC, we could observe slow wave oscillations in the neural signal. After LOC was established, neural activity was recorded for up to 30 min for the ketamine-medetomidine-induced anesthesia experiment, and about 10 min for the propofol-, ketamine-, and medetomidine-induced anesthesia experiments respectively (Anesthetized condition). Heart rate and breathing were monitored carefully throughout the length of the experiment.

After the anesthetized condition, the monkey recovered from anesthesia (Recovery condition). In ketamine-medetomidine- and medetomidine-induced anesthesia experiments, atipamezole which is an antagonist of medetomidine was injected intramuscularly and the monkey recovered quickly after the injection. In propofol- and ketamine-induced anesthesia experiments, the monkey was left alone for recovery. In the recovery condition, there were eyes-closed and eyes-opened conditions. In ketamine-medetomidine-induced anesthesia experiment, the onset of recovery eyes-closed condition was defined as the point at which the slow wave oscillation in the neural signal disappeared. In propofol-, ketamine- and medetomidine-induced anesthesia experiments, the onset of recovery eyes-closed condition was defined as the point at which the monkey responded to manipulation of the monkey’s hand or touching of the nostril or philtrum with a cotton swab as same sensitivity as the awake eye-closed condition.

During the recovery eyes-closed condition, the monkey’s eyes were closed and the monkey would sit calmly for 10~30 min. Next the monkey’s eyes were opened by removing the eye-mask. During the recovery eyes-opened condition, the monkey would sit calmly for about 10 min.

We performed two to three experiments for each monkey, all on separate days (See Table).

  • Natural Sleep Experiment

Natural sleep experiment: During the sleep experiment under the conditions of sleep, awake with eyes closed, and awake with eyes open, the state of the monkey was monitored by recording electrooculogram (EOG) and electromyography (EMG) signals.

EOG and EMG were performed at a sampling rate of 1 kHz by a Cerebus data acquisition system (Blackrock Microsystems, Salt Lake City, UT, USA)). EOG signals were recorded from the muscles of the right eye by placing 2 electrodes (Nihon Kohden, Disposable electrode for ECG Monitoring M-150) on near the outer and inner canthi of the right eye. The difference in potential between the 2 electrodes was then used as the EOG signal. Two electrodes were put on the chin, and the difference in the potential between these electrodes was used as the EMG signal.

In the sleeping condition, the eyes were covered by an eye mask, and the experimental room was kept quiet and dark for up to 1.5 hours. During this period, slow wave oscillation appeared intermittently in the ECoG signal. Immediately following the sleeping condition, the light was turned on, and data acquisition was continued under the eyes closed condition for about 10 minutes. The eye mask was removed for the eyes open condition, which lasted for about 10 minutes. For monkeys M1 and M2, 3 and 4 experiments were performed on separate days, respectively (See Table). The sleeping state was defined by the degree of spatial synchronization in slow wave oscillations (See Yanagawa et al. 2013 for the detail method).

  • Table


  • ECoG Electrode array on monkey's brain


2D brain image and electrodes location of monkey can be downloaded here.

Data format

Data can be download from neurotycho.

One zip file has one date data which consists of some sessions.

In the name of the zip file


1) The first numerical number (ex. 20110621) means an experimental date

2) 'KTMD‘, ‘PF‘, ‘KT‘, ‘MD‘ and ‘SLP‘ mean label of experiment

3)‘Chibi‘, ‘George‘, ‘Kin2‘ and ‘Su‘ mean name of monkey

In each session folder (Session*), there are ‘ECoG_ch**.mat‘, ‘ECoGTime.mat‘ and ‘Condition.mat‘ files. * means number of session.

‘ECoG_ch**.mat‘ had ECoG data of electrode. ** means number of electrode. Sampling rate was 1 kHz.

‘ECoGTime.mat‘ had time of ECoG data.

‘Condition.mat‘ had information of condition.

Only the sleeping experiment had EOG and EMG data.

‘EOG_REye.mat‘ had EOG data recorded from right eye.

‘EMG_Chin.mat‘ had EMG data recorded from chin.

Condition information:

‘Condition.mat’ has information of condition in the session. There are four variables:

‘ConditionLabel‘ has labels of condition.

‘ConditionIndex‘ has indices of data at which conditions occurred in the session.

‘ConditionTime‘ has time-stamps at which conditions occurred in the session [sec]

The meaning of label of condition is as follows:

'AwakeEyesOpened': Awake condition with eyes opened

'AwakeEyesClosed': Awake condition with eyes closed

'AnestheticInjection': Injection of anesthetic agent

'Anesthetized': Anesthetized condition

'AntagonistInjection' : Injection of antagonist

'RecoveryEyesClosed' : Recovery condition with eyes closed

'RecoveryEyesOpened' : Recovery condition with eyes opened

'Sleeping' : Sleeping condition


Yanagawa, T., Chao, Z. C., Hasegawa, N., & Fujii, N. (2013). "Large-Scale Information Flow in Conscious and Unconscious States: an ECoG Study in Monkeys." PloS one, 8(11), e80845.